Before the Malacca Sultanate, there are significant number of governments. The culture of these governments was influenced by Hinduism and Buddhism.
1. Kedah Tua is the earlier kingdom, located in Bujang Valley. Other names for Kedah Tua include Kataha, Kadaram, Sai, Lost, Lost Bar and Kalagram. This kingdom was existed since 5-14 B.C. Gold River (5-10 B.C.) was the administrative centre of Kedah Tua. Then, it has moved to Pengkalan Bujang (10-14 B.C.).
2. Chih Tu is the empire in Tanah Merah, Kelantan. It exists since 200M. This empire is under shelter of Funan, Cambodia. This government was powerful and luxury. There is also a Gold-plated palace in the empire.
3. Tan Tan is an empire exists in Terengganu. The name of Tan Tan was given since Sui Dynasty. History was written that this city had 20,000 of family and the systematic administration.
4. Gangga Negara Beruas is an empire that exists in Perak. The land of this government is covered up to Bruas, Dinding and Manjung. The founder of Gangga Negara Beruas is Raja Ganjil Sarjuna from Kedah.
5. Langkasuka, an empire based in Northern Peninsula of Pattani (Thailand). Langkasuka is also known as Lang-ya-shiu, Lang-chia-shu (China), Langasyuka (Arab). It is a kingdom of ancient Malay Hindu.
6. Lo Yueh, an empire exists in the South Peninsula, Johor. The research from archaeologists show that this region has relationship with the Sung Dynasty, Yuan, Ming and Ching Dynasty in China.